The work I do at the Joint Centre for Disaster Research is chiefly focused on psychosocial support before, during and after disaster events.
The videos I had produced back in 2009 before the Canterbury earthquakes started walks you through the major issues to think about concerning psychosocial support and disasters. In this series of videos, I cover:
Foundations of Psychosocial Support
The Principles of Psychosocial Support
The IASC Guidelines / residual difficulties for people after emergencies
Disasters and their impact upon mental well-being – Part 1
Disasters and their impact upon mental well-being – Part 2
Disasters and their impact upon mental well-being – Part 3
Disasters and their impact upon mental well-being – Part 4
Disasters and their impact upon mental well-being – Part 5
Ordinary reactions to extraordinary events
Psychological First Aid
The process of helping
Guidance on helping children and adolescents
Assisting adults and older adults
Individual and community supports after the Canberra bush fires
My stomach sank when I woke up at 4am in London and checked my mail. I heard about the 6.3 quake in Christchurch. I heard the reports and saw some of the footage. I know it will be hard in the hours and days that follow, but I would strongly recommend anyone, especially those in the area in NZ, to limit the viewings of this footage. Yes, I understand you want to know what is going on, and you want to find out about people you care about. But we know from the evidence of coverage of other disasters that repeated viewing of graphic footage of the event (a) adds no further understanding in terms of pure information, and (b) carries a risk of possible psychological difficulties later on.
Try to limit your exposure to imagery on TV and on the internet. Check in once in a while to see if there is anything new. Probably best to stick to radio, but be careful who else might be listening (small children might get even more upset).
Although we are two weeks on from the triggering event, engaging in response efforts in the wake of a crisis event like the Canterbury earthquake and the aftershocks is inevitably stressful for those involved in the emergency response. While the work is personally rewarding and challenging, it also has the potential for affecting responders in harmful ways. The long hours, breadth of needs and demands, ambiguous roles, and exposure to human suffering can adversely affect even the most experienced professional. Too often, the stress experienced by responders is addressed as an afterthought. With a little effort, however, steps can be taken to minimise the effects of stress.
Stress prevention and management should be addressed in two critical contexts: the organisation and the individual. Adopting a preventive perspective allows both workers and organisations to anticipate stressors and shape responses, rather than simply reacting to a crisis when it occurs. Organisational Approaches for Stress Prevention and Management
Provide effective management structure and leadership. Elements include:
Clear chain of command and reporting relationships.
Available and accessible supervisors.
Disaster orientation for all workers.
Shifts of no longer than 12 hours, followed by 12 hours off.
Briefings at the beginning of shifts as workers enter the operation. Shifts should overlap so that outgoing workers brief incoming workers.
Communication tools (e.g., mobile phones, radios).
Define a clear purpose and goals.
Define clear intervention goals and strategies appropriate to the assignment setting.
Define roles by function.
Orient and train staff with written role descriptions for each assignment setting. When a setting is under the jurisdiction of another agency, inform workers of each agency’s role, contact people, and expectations.
Nurture team support.
Consider creating a buddy system to support and monitor stress reactions. Promote a positive atmosphere of support and tolerance with frequent praise.
Develop a plan for stress management. For example:
Assess workers’ functioning regularly.
Rotate workers among low-, mid-, and high-stress tasks.
Some families cope well with the crisis and immediate aftermath. Changes which are not obviously related to the crisis may occur some weeks or months after the incident.
Routine and work patterns, ambition or motivation in the affected member or others in the family may change; work efficiency and concentration may be reduced.
Spouses/parents may be short tempered, irritable or intolerant, leading to friction in relationships and misunderstanding between themselves and their children.
Children or teenagers can be clingy, attention seeking or disobedient – this usually indicates they are anxious or fearful.
Teenagers may become more rebellious or demanding, or through other behaviour, demonstrate a need to have a sense of control over their lives.
Child or adult family members may be overly concerned to help. They may try hard not to do anything wrong and postpone their own needs to support the affected member.
Family members’ feelings for each other may change by becoming more detached, uninvolved or preoccupied with personal problems as each member tries to cope with their own reactions.
Spouses may experience changes in their sexual relationship.
Children and teenagers’ school performance and concentration may be lowered; they may lose former interests.
Family members may lose interest in leisure, recreation, sport or social activities.
Teenagers may turn outside the family for emotional support from peers or other adults.
Immediate post crisis responses may persist or sometimes begin to appear for the first time.
Long term effects
Sometimes problems become evident for the first time, months or years after the event.
The memories of the traumatic event may come back for family members involved in another crisis, although it was dealt with at the time.
Family members, including children, often need to go over the events again when they grow into new stages of maturity and develop a capacity for greater understanding.
People may find future crises harder to handle, particularly when similar feelings are aroused, even if for different reasons.
Family members may cover up or cope with difficult feelings until all the fuss is over and things have returned to normal, and only then show their distress.
Any of the immediate or medium term effects may occur as delayed reactions or may become habits.
Problems often appear in the form of everyday frustrations. Retracing the way they have developed and examining connections to the crisis often makes the cause clearer. It is wise to assume that a major change or problem in family members in the next few years has some relationship to the crisis.
These problems are all normal reactions to an abnormal event that has touched the lives of the whole family. It is important not to blame each other. Try to understand how members affect each other. It is part of a changed pattern of family life arising from the crisis.
Helpful things to do
A few simple things will help families recover from crisis.
Keep communicating: Talk about what is happening, how members feel, what they need from each other. This avoids feeling alone, isolated and not understood. Don’t leave communication to chance, make opportunities for it to happen.
Share information: Communicate with children, teenagers and toddlers. They know something is going on and a painful reality is easier to deal with than the unknown worry of fear.
Do things together: Ensure time is reserved for recreation, enjoyment and rewarding experiences. Shared pleasure carries a family through many difficulties.
Keep family roles clear: Don’t allow children to take too much responsibility for too long, even if they want to care for a distressed parent. Help members preserve their role and position in the family and support them. Don’t overprotect children or adults. Be understanding if a member cannot fulfil their role for a time and talk about how they will resume when they are ready and able.
Be active: Tackle problems, seek help, seek information and don’t let small issues build up. Whatever the cause, stress leads to further problems. Stress factors don’t add up, they multiply and make everything feel worse than it is.
Look back: From time to time take stock of how each member has changed since the crisis. Look for the ways the crisis has influenced everyone for better or worse.
Allow expressions of emotions: Support distressed family members and allow them time to find their way through their feelings. They may express distress many times before it diminishes. Suppressing emotions places them outside control and therefore outside recovery.
Use other people: Keep in contact with support groups, other family, friends, neighbours, and workmates. Make sure the family doesn’t become isolated and too involved with itself. Share the experience with those you trust. Most families have the ability to grow through crisis. But understanding its effects and actively dealing with them is necessary.
When to seek help
There are a number of signs that recovery may not be proceeding in a helpful way:
Communication in the family is breaking down
Parents do not understand their children’s (or each other’s) behaviour
Things are not improving over time in the family
There is evidence of deteriorating physical or emotional health in any family member
Family members are not able to enjoy being together.
If you are concerned about yourself, your spouse, children or parents do not hesitate to contact someone trained to assess the situation and advise you. A little early help from a trained person can avoid long-term difficulty and give family members back confidence in themselves and each other.
I have adapted this from information issued by Queensland Health: Fact Sheets for Psychosocial Disaster Management. I have also compiled a version that you can download here.